L1. Amenazas por procesos de tierra sólida
Iván Salazar, Walter Roldán y Norman Toro.
Gestión del riesgo de desastres
landslides; debris flow; hydrometeorology; alluvial; hyper-arid; hazard
In the world, the hazards of intense rainfall are recurrent and increasing. In addition, they are one of the natural hazards that cause the most severe damage to infrastructure and even cause deaths every year. Flow-type landslides are capable of develop in areas with different geomorphological, geological and climatic characteristics. In hyper-arid zones such as the Atacama Desert, these hazards are capable of develop in a timely manner, causing catastrophes. This study analyzes the flow-type landslide in a hyper-arid mountainous area in La Chimba basin of Antofagasta city (Chile). For this, a hydrometeorological analysis is carried out through a pluviometric analysis, statistical analysis of frequencies through the Gumbel probabilistic method of extreme values and determination of maximum flows by obtaining IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) curves and design rainfall intensity as a function of concentration time. To obtain the maximum flows of liquid runoff and debris, for different return periods, the rational method was used with the method proposed by O’Brien. For the determination in the impact zone, the modeling software HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System) and RAMMS (Rapid Mass Movements). Hydrographs are used for a return period of about 200 years, considered the most unfavorable scenario with the Voellmy–Salm model. To validate the modeling, a morphometric, sedimentological and comparative analysis is carried out between real impact zones of 1991 event and those generated in this study. It is concluded that the sedimentological and morphometric characteristics indicate that the type of flow that it can originate would have a rapid response to rainfall events of great intensity or duration. The modeling provided by HEC-RAS represents a fluvial-type flow, while the RAMMS modeling is closer to the consistency of a flow-type landslide, which is estimated to be closer to reality. The results show that despite being in a hyper-arid zone, the rainfall factor is capable of landslides triggering in mountainous areas.