Residential reinforced concrete buildings performed well during the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. However, brittle damage was observed in reinforced concrete structural walls. The most frequent observed damage in such walls was crushing of concrete due to flexural-compressive interaction, buckling and fracture of longitudinal reinforcement, and opening of the horizontal reinforcement. The main objective of this study is to understand the observed damage in slender walls after 2010 Maule earthquake and to reproduce and analyze experimentally the seismic behavior of such walls. The second objective is to provide recommendations to estimate the lateral displacement and the effective stiffness of slender walls. To achieve these objectives, six ½-scale slender reinforced concrete walls were tested using a conventional quasi-static cyclic incremental lateral displacement test protocol with a constant axial load. The test results are compared to a reference wall tested previously in the same research project. The variables analyzed in this study are: wall thickness, wall aspect ratio, use of uniformly distributed vertical reinforcement, detailing of 135-degree hooks for the horizontal reinforcement, addition of closed stirrups in the wall boundaries, and addition of transverse cross-ties. The observed damage in the tested walls was similar to that observed in walls of buildings damaged during the 2010 Maule earthquake. The behavior of the tested walls was dominated by bending due to their relatively large aspect ratio. The failure, determined by the loss of ability to carry axial load, occurred suddenly as a compression failure along the entire cross section at the base of the tested walls. Test results showed that a 25% reduction in wall thickness reduced the ultimate displacement capacity, ductility, and energy dissipation ability of the wall. Closed stirrups and cross-ties were effective in increasing displacement capacity and ductility, and closed stirrups were effective in preventing out-of-plane buckling of the wall after compression failure. The average effective stiffness ratio of the tested walls was 0.39, which is slightly larger than the ACI 318 suggestion of 0.35.