Bulletin of Volcanology
L1. Amenazas por procesos de tierra sólida
Gabriel Ureta, Károly Németh, Martin Zimmer & Andrew Menzies
Análisis del riesgo y mitigación
Opciones de mitigación
Monogenetic volcanism, Eruptive styles, Phreatomagmatism, Magmatism.
Cerro Overo maar and La Albóndiga lava dome are two independent monogenetic volcanoes located in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes in northern Chile, close to the active Lascar and Chiliques volcanoes. Cerro Overo maar was formed <77 ka ago by explosive-effusive eruptions, including phreatomagmatic activity, while La Albóndiga lava dome (Pleistocene) is the result of magmatic explosive-effusive activity alone. Cerro Overo and La Albóndiga are characterized by deposits composed of pyroclastic rocks and dense coherent lava blocks. At Cerro Overo, these deposits are located around the crater rim, while at La Albóndiga, they form coherent in situ lava dome features. Cerro Overo also displays thin ash- and lapilli-dominated deposit layers presumed to be pyroclastic surge deposits, which include juvenile pyroclasts exhibiting cauliflower textures, numerous exotic accidental lithics, and ballistically transported lapilli, bombs, blocks, and bomb sags. These fragments include recycled, juvenile pyroclasts, as well as material from older volcanic and intrusive rocks from the stratigraphic units immediately below. These small-volume volcanoes represent two of the less silicic volcanoes (~54 wt.% SiO2) in the northern Chilean Pleistocene to Holocene volcanic provinces. They are characterized by a fine grain size (mainly fine lapilli), olivine phenocrysts with skeletal textures, ignimbritic, dioritic, and granitic xenoliths, and quartz xenocrysts, with high concentrations of incompatible trace elements and light rare earth elements. The general magmatic evolution of the Cerro Overo and La Albóndiga systems has been controlled by fast ascent (e.g., skeletal olivine phenocrysts) of mantle-derived magma associated with mixing, fractional crystallization, and a low degree of crustal assimilation during turbulent ascent processes. Such eruptions provide evidence that various factors play an essential role in the transition from explosive-effusive magmatic (Cerro Overo and La Albóndiga) to phreatomagmatic (Cerro Overo) volcanic eruption styles.